confirmatory research
验证性研究
论文:http://static.tongtianta.site/paper_pdf/96b50514-eb3c-11e9-9763-00163e08bb86.pdf
1. The phenomenon under study exists as an objective reality that can be studied scientifically (i.e. by excluding the subjective viewpoint of the researcher as far as this is possible).
1.研究中的现象作为可以科学地研究的客观现实而存在(即尽可能地排除研究者的主观观点)。
2. Confirmatory research is theory driven. That is, the research questions are derived from an explicit theory that predicts that certain types of relationships in the phenomenon being investigated will be found. The purpose of confirmatory research is to "test" these predictions (called "hypotheses") by providing evidence that either confirms or disconfirms them.
2.验证性研究是理论驱动的。也就是说,研究问题源自一个明确的理论,该理论预测将在被调查现象中找到某些类型的关系。验证性研究的目的是通过提供证实或否定它们的证据来“测试”这些预测(称为“假设”)。
3. In order to form hypotheses it is necessary to divide the phenomenon being investigated into clearly-defined elements or constructs The validity of the research depends on whether these constructs can be shown to be theoretically sound. 4. Once identified, the constructs under study can then be separately and quantitatively measured. This is commonly referred to as an etic perspective. The measurement of variables must be demonstrably reliable. That is, the researcher needs to show that no bias or inconsistency has crept into their measurement.
3.为了形成假设,有必要将被研究的现象分为明确定义的要素或结构。研究的有效性取决于这些结构在理论上是否可以被证明是合理的。 4。一旦确定,就可以分别对研究的构建体进行定量测量。这通常被称为思想观点。变量的测量必须证明是可靠的。也就是说,研究人员需要证明没有偏见或前后矛盾之处已蔓延到他们的测量中。
5. By ensuring the research is valid and reliable it is possible to arrive at conclusions about the phenomenon under study that can be applied to the wider population from which the sample being investigated was drawn. That is, the findings of confirmatory research are not limited to the specific classroom/teachers/learners under investigation. Confirmatory studies of L2 teaching draw on theories of language teaching and learning to identify the "variables" that can be studied. A "variable" is a general theoretical construct. Examples of variables derived from a theory of teaching are "production-based instruction and "comprehension- based instruction". Examples derived from a theory of L2 learning are "implicit learning" and "explicit learning". Some variables straddle the boundaries of teaching/learning theory. "Focus on form" for example is a variable that was derived from a theory of L2 acquisition that claimed that attention to form in the context of meaning-focused communication constitutes the ideal condition for learning to take place, but it is also an instructional variable in that it is realized through specific instructional techniques such as corrective feedback (see Doughty and Williams, 1998). Many of the variables investigated in language teaching research are of this kind. For research purposes, theoretical variables need to be made operational (i.e. concrete ways of investigating them have to be worked out). This often means narrowing them down to quite specific behaviors. Comprehension-based instruction, for example, might be realized in the form of listen-and-do tasks (i.e. tasks that require learners to listen to directions or descriptions and then show their understanding by some action). The key point, though, is that in confirmatory research the variables chosen for study are determined a priori by some general theory. The relationship between variables can be of two kinds, leading to two different types of confirmatory research-experimental and correlational Experimental research assumes a causal relationship between variables-that is variable A(called the independent variable) causes some changes in variable B(called the dependent variable). In the case of language teaching research, this typically involves investigating whether some aspect of instruction (e.g. corrective feedback) results in some change in the students(e.g. a gain in grammatical accuracy). A clear example of experimental research in the field of language teaching can be found in the comparative method studies, where the effects of two different methods for teaching a language are compared in terms of measures of L2 achievement. Correlational research assumes a link between two variables but without claiming that the link is causal. For example, the relationship between learner participation in the classroom and L2 proficiency is best seen as correlational as it is just as possible that the learners' proficiency may influence their level of participation as vice versa. Correlational relations always need to be interpreted cautiously because we cannot be sure about the direction of the relationship we have found. In the context of the L2 classroom, the relationship between two variables is very likely to be 19 influenced by other variables, known as moderating variables. For example, if we wanted to investigate the effect of comprehension-based versus production-based instruction on learning we would do well to take account of individual learner factors such as language anxiety. Learners with a propensity to anxiety in the classroom may learn better from comprehension-based instruction as production is inherently anxiety-creating for some learners while more self-confident learners who are prepared to take risks in using the L2 may benefit more from production-base instruction. L2 classroom researchers in the confirmatory paradigm are increasingly examining the interplay of large numbers of variables. Design The design of experimental and correlational studies differs and so will be considered separately. Experimental research A true experimental study requires the following:
5.通过确保研究是有效和可靠的,有可能得出有关正在研究的现象的结论,该结论可适用于从中抽取被调查样本的更广泛的人群。也就是说,验证性研究的结果并不限于所调查的特定教室/教师/学习者。L2教学的验证性研究利用语言教学的理论来确定可以研究的“变量”。 “变量”是一般的理论构造。从教学理论中得出的变量的例子是“基于生产的教学和基于理解的教学”。源自L2学习理论的示例是“内隐学习”和“显式学习”。一些变量跨越了教学理论的边界。例如,“形式上的焦点”是从二语习得理论衍生的变量,该理论声称在注重意思的交流中对形式的关注构成了学习发生的理想条件,但它也是一个教学变量因为它是通过特定的教学技术(例如纠正反馈)来实现的(请参见Doughty和Williams,1998)。语言教学研究中研究的许多变量都是这种变量。出于研究目的,需要使理论变量可操作(即必须研究出具体的研究方法)。这通常意味着将其范围缩小到非常具体的行为。例如,基于理解的教学可能以听和做任务的形式实现(即要求学习者听取指导或说明然后通过某种行动展示其理解的任务)。但是,关键点在于,在确认性研究中,选择用于研究的变量是由某些一般理论先验确定的。变量之间的关系可以有两种,导致两种不同类型的验证性研究-实验性和相关性实验研究假设变量之间存在因果关系,即变量A(称为自变量)引起变量B的某些变化(称为变量)。因变量)。就语言教学研究而言,这通常涉及调查教学的某些方面(例如,纠正性反馈)是否会导致学生的某些变化(例如,语法准确性的提高)。在比较方法研究中可以找到语言教学领域实验研究的一个明显例子,在比较方法研究中,根据L2成绩的衡量标准比较了两种不同的语言教学方法的效果。相关性研究假设两个变量之间存在关联,但并未声称该关联是因果关系。例如,最好将学习者在课堂上的参与程度与二语水平之间的关系视为相关性,因为学习者的熟练程度可能会影响他们的参与程度,反之亦然。关联关系始终需要谨慎地解释,因为我们无法确定所发现关系的方向。在L2教室的环境中,两个变量之间的关系很可能会受到其他变量(称为调节变量)的影响达到19。例如,如果我们想研究基于理解的教学与基于生产的教学对学习的影响,那么考虑个体学习者因素(例如语言焦虑)将是很好的选择。在课堂上有焦虑倾向的学习者可能会从基于理解的教学中学习得更好,因为对于某些学习者而言,生产本质上是在制造焦虑,而准备冒险使用二语的更多自信学习者则可能会从生产基础中受益更多指令。验证范式中的L2课堂研究人员越来越多地研究大量变量之间的相互作用。设计实验和相关研究的设计有所不同,因此将单独考虑。实验研究真正的实验研究需要满足以下条件:
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